World leaders gather on Friday for the annual Munich Security Conference, a meeting begun at the height of the Cold War to address severe military challenges.
For decades, the debate was between largely unified Western nations backing a world vision focused on open markets and strong security institutions like NATO. But the global order is shifting as the Trump administration has pursued policies of withdrawal from overseas conflicts and shunned multilateral institutions in favor of bilateral agreements.
“The whole liberal world order appears to be falling apart,” Wolfgang Ischinger, chairman of the Munich Security Conference, wrote in an introductory note. “We are experiencing an epochal shift; an era is ending, and the rough outlines of a new political age are only beginning to emerge.”
Here’s what to know as the meeting gets underway.
The conference was first held in 1963, with the fallout of World War II still lingering and the Cold War at full throttle.
The earliest iteration brought together German leaders with NATO allies, including the United States, to shore up commitments to mutual defense and unite Western policy. The conference was described by its founders as a “trans-Atlantic family meeting.”
In the decades since, it has grown to include representatives from around the world and has served as a platform for airing grievances and testing policies.
Last year, a heated exchange between Israel and Iran dominated the conference, as Israel’s prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, displayed a scrap of metal that he said was part of an Iranian drone that his country’s forces had shot down. A few hours later, Iran’s foreign minister, Mohammad Javad Zarif, called the display a “cartoonish circus.”
One of the most memorable moments came more than a decade ago, in the waning days of the George W. Bush administration, when President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia took America to task for what he saw as overreach.
In the 2007 speech, Mr. Putin denounced the United States for actions that he said had undermined global stability, including the expansion of NATO.
A significant shift in American foreign policy under President Trump has further changed the dynamic.
Seth G. Jones, a senior adviser at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, said the conference would reflect a world in which the United States and Europe are increasingly at odds.
The Americans have traditionally “been the harbingers of the growth and protection of the order,” Mr. Jones said. “And now we have the U.S., at least some of the U.S. figures like the president, questioning that.”
On the agenda for the 2019 conference are discussions of the future of the European Union; trade and international security; arms control; and the implications of power struggles between the United States, China and Russia. Senior officials from all of those countries will attend.
Divisions between the United States and Europe on several security issues, including the Americans’ abandonment of the Iran nuclear deal, have placed the allies at odds. Recent American decisions to pull back from conflicts abroad — with Mr. Trump announcing the withdrawal of troops in Syria and plans to downsize America’s role in Afghanistan — have left European allies wondering who will step in.
“There is a broader question in Europe, including among countries gathering in Munich, about what the U.S. role in the world is,” Mr. Jones said. “It’s not necessarily isolationist policy, but definitely one operating with much more international restraint than previous administrations. And who fills that vacuum?”
The United States is bringing its largest-ever delegation to the conference, with Vice President Mike Pence and Patrick Shanahan, the acting defense secretary, representing the Trump administration. A congressional delegation includes the House speaker, Nancy Pelosi.
The future of NATO is likely to hang over the conference. Mr. Trump has been critical of the alliance, saying it imposes an unfair financial burden on the United States. Mr. Shanahan visited NATO headquarters on Wednesday.
In a statement from the White House ahead of the conference, the administration said Mr. Pence would emphasize bilateral discussions, call for “more equitable burden sharing within the NATO alliance,” and speak about international trade and stabilizing the Middle East and Latin America.
With players from across the political spectrum, the American delegation may well push diverging visions of United States foreign policy.
“There are major divisions within the U.S. government, including in the national security establishment,” Mr. Jones said. “And there are plenty of senior-level government officials in the Department of Defense and State who value the relationship with Europe and value the intelligence sharing that goes on multilaterally, not just bilaterally.”B:
数字3开奖结果2018027【关】【竹】【送】【大】【哥】【出】【了】【城】【门】，【一】【直】【送】【到】【了】【十】【里】【亭】。 “【大】【哥】，【一】【路】【多】【多】【保】【重】！”【关】【竹】【依】【依】【不】【舍】，【眼】【里】【赫】【然】【有】【了】【泪】【光】。 【此】【去】【京】【城】，【千】【里】【迢】【迢】，【山】【长】【水】【远】。【一】【路】【上】，【潜】【在】【的】【危】【机】，【数】【不】【胜】【数】。【山】【匪】【强】【盗】，【那】【就】【不】【用】【说】【了】，【肯】【定】【是】【要】【遇】【上】【几】【拨】【的】。【另】【外】，【一】【路】【上】，【什】【么】***【富】【二】【代】【地】【头】【蛇】，【不】【好】【招】【惹】【的】，【肯】【定】【也】【要】【遇】【上】【不】【少】。
【周】【烈】【坐】【在】【风】【火】【之】【中】，【任】【由】【宇】【宙】【各】【大】【基】【本】【力】【量】【撕】【扯】【身】【体】。 【他】【起】【初】【花】【费】【了】【巨】【大】【精】【力】【淬】【炼】【细】【胞】，【可】【是】【随】【着】【宇】【宙】【在】【脑】【海】【中】【成】【形】，【淬】【炼】【变】【成】【了】【自】【由】【演】【化】。 【体】【内】【出】【现】【海】【量】【星】【系】，【每】【个】【星】【系】【都】【是】【一】【处】【细】【小】【神】【经】【节】，【由】【刚】【开】【始】【的】【不】【稳】【定】【逐】【步】【迈】【入】【稳】【定】，【这】【便】【是】【演】【化】【之】【妙】，【看】【似】【离】【奇】，【实】【则】【自】【然】，【浑】【身】【上】【下】【宛】【如】【天】【成】！ “【快】！【我】
【华】【国】【艺】【术】【家】【协】【会】【的】【分】【会】【很】【多】，【涵】【盖】【了】【几】【乎】【各】【个】【艺】【术】【领】【域】，【但】【这】【些】【领】【域】【间】【也】【有】【着】【大】【小】【之】【分】。 【比】【如】【说】【雕】【塑】【和】【建】【筑】，【就】【是】【两】【个】【略】【小】【的】【部】【分】，【相】【比】【于】【音】【乐】、【文】【学】，【以】【及】【秦】【晨】【所】【在】【的】【影】【视】【分】【会】，【在】【理】【事】【的】【人】【数】【上】【就】【有】【明】【显】【差】【距】。 【但】【即】【便】【如】【此】，【影】【视】【分】【会】【其】【实】【也】【只】【有】6【个】【常】【任】【理】【事】，【如】【今】【即】【便】【加】【上】【秦】【晨】，【也】【不】【过】7【个】【而】【已】。 数字3开奖结果2018027【华】【天】【凌】【含】【笑】【道】：“【大】【哥】【这】【样】【英】【明】【神】【武】，【甚】【至】【一】【直】【调】【查】【案】【件】【的】【人】【都】【不】【知】【道】，【四】【弟】【又】【如】【何】【能】【够】【知】【道】【什】【么】【关】【键】【线】【索】【呢】？” “【你】【当】【真】【不】【知】【道】？”【华】【天】【宇】【的】【声】【音】【带】【了】【一】【丝】【气】【急】【败】【坏】，【感】【情】【这】【家】【伙】【方】【才】【一】【直】【在】【和】【他】【开】【玩】【笑】，【将】【他】【当】【猴】【耍】？ 【华】【天】【宇】【立】【刻】【便】【要】【发】【火】，【华】【天】【凌】【却】【不】【疾】【不】【徐】【道】：“【大】【哥】，【这】【样】【着】【急】，【可】【是】【得】【不】【到】【你】【想】【要】
【这】【么】【个】【样】【子】，【若】【是】【其】【本】【人】【再】【有】【刻】【意】【哄】【骗】【他】【人】【的】【意】【思】，【怕】【是】【大】【多】【数】【人】【都】【要】【被】【哄】【了】。 【所】【以】【李】【馨】【谙】【说】【宋】【澜】【能】【骗】【到】【很】【多】【纯】/【情】【小】【伙】【子】，【这】【话】【说】【出】【去】，【见】【过】【宋】【澜】【的】【人】【都】【很】【相】【信】。 【另】【一】【只】【手】【攀】【上】【栏】【杆】，【宋】【澜】【说】：“【我】【以】【前】【对】【你】【这】【么】【差】，【你】【都】【没】【什】【么】【表】【示】，【怎】【么】【这】【会】【儿】【才】【说】【上】【这】【个】，【你】【就】【如】【此】【凶】【神】【恶】【煞】【了】。” 【巫】【凌】【羽】【不】【语】。
【姜】【成】【威】【被】【警】【局】【带】【走】【的】【时】【候】，【不】【需】【要】【多】【久】【的】【时】【间】，【在】【整】【个】【帝】【都】【传】【开】。 【整】【场】【订】【婚】【宴】【会】【中】，【最】【值】【得】【宾】【客】【们】【议】【论】【得】【不】【是】【许】【大】【小】【姐】【的】【双】【腿】【和】【身】【世】，【也】【不】【是】【苏】【心】【澄】【的】【突】【然】【出】【现】，【更】【不】【是】【许】【笙】【和】【苏】【心】【澄】【的】【往】【事】。 【而】【是】，【姜】【家】！ 【是】【姜】【成】【威】【胆】【大】【妄】【为】【地】【在】【洗】【手】【间】【对】【女】***【施】【暴】，【是】【姜】【老】【太】【太】【狂】【妄】【嚣】【张】【地】【威】【胁】【宾】【客】【做】【虚】【假】【口】【供】。